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176                            -PLORA INDICA*.
Bhotan is at present one of the least accessible parts of the
Himalaya, and is only known to us by the narratives of Tur-
ner and of Pemberton; for Mr. Bogle, who passed through
it in 1774, has left no record of his journey. Captain Turner
traversed the most westerly part of the province, from the
plains of Bengal to the towns of Tashisudon and Panaka, and,
after a short residence in Tibet, returned by the same route to
India; he lias not, in his 'Travels/ given any details of the
Major Pemberton, who was accompanied by Mr. Griffith,
entered Bhotan a little to the west of the meridian of Gowa-
hatti, in Assam, and crossed a range of mountains into the
valley of the Monas river, whence he travelled in a westerly
direction across high mountains to the valley of the Pa-chu,
This river, which rises to the eastward of Clmrnaiari, in Tibet,
has an almost due south course to the plains; but the Monas
as well as the Subansiri have a south-west course in Bhotan :
higher up they probably run. south-cast, and bend round to
south*west iu a curve somewhat parallel to that of the Y am-
or Diliong, which afterwards becomes the Brahmaputra.
la western Bhotan the mountain-ranges arc lofty and rug-
ged, and the river-courses very deep and generally narrow,
At Panaka the Pa-elm in only 3700 feet above the sea, though
eighty miles distant from the plains \ ami the Monas, wlieiti
Pemberton aiid Oviflith crossed it, is only 1-100 feet, wlule the
range south of It "attains an cloviitiou of 9500 feet. In their
journey from the MOUU& to i'auaka, thes*c traveller** evossed
ridges 12,400 Iect iu height. Ou their return to India thoy
followed Captain Turner's route.
The mountain mass which descends from the axis of the
Himalaya to separate the Monaa from the Subansiri attains an
elevation of at kka*t 2 y XX) feet as far south m latitude 28,
Throe peak* upon this urc visible from the Khasia mouutaiiia,
and spun* deseunding from it were aseeuded to au elevation